The hottest people's Daily said that state-owned e

2022-09-21
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People say that state-owned enterprises have become the pacesetters and are no longer inefficient.

new posture of state-owned enterprises China's backbone is strong and upright (one of the new starting points of new state-owned enterprises: layout)

"Shenjiu" flying to the sky, "Jiaolong" going to the sea, "jian-15" blockbuster, high-speed rail Mercedes Benz - behind these achievements that make Chinese people extremely proud, there is a common symbol: state-owned enterprise creation

when many people still have the impression of state-owned enterprises as "inefficient, backward products and weak competition", while some people are still accusing state-owned enterprises of "doing everything and not being able to do anything well", China's state-owned enterprises have quietly completed a magnificent transformation

in 2012, 54 state-owned enterprises entered the global Fortune 500, ranking fifth in the highest ranking. In the mid-1990s, the total annual sales revenue of China's largest 500 state-owned enterprises was not as good as that of general motors of the United States. Tear off the label of "loss", today's state-owned enterprises show excellent profitability, become the representative of China's competitiveness in the international market, and interpret the story of "elephant running" with impressive performance

in 2012, 117 central enterprises achieved profits of 1.3 trillion yuan and paid taxes of 1.9 trillion yuan, with an average annual growth rate of nearly 20% over the past 10 years. Many people don't know that until the establishment of SASAC in 2003, many central enterprises were still worried about insolvency and unable to pay employees' wages. As an excellent representative of state-owned enterprises, the number of central enterprises is small, but their influence is extraordinary. They have become the pacesetter of the industry and the pillar force of the national economy, showing the style of "national backbone" on the stage of the new century

through the pain of reform and the bleak bottom, in the process of exploring the combination of socialist public ownership and market economy, there is a "new state-owned enterprise" formation

there are advances and retreats, and there are actions and omissions. State owned enterprises have formed a new layout.

despite a series of attempts to implement the factory director responsibility system and the operation contract system, by the end of the 1990s, affected by the international and domestic economic situation, state-owned enterprises were still in trouble on a large scale

To do a good job in state-owned enterprises, we should not only deepen the reform of enterprise system and mechanism at the micro level, but also adjust the layout and structure of state-owned economy at the macro level

"in the past, we pursued pure and pure socialism, thinking that the more state-owned enterprises, the better. Later, we established the policy of public ownership as the main body and the common development of various forms of ownership, but the state-owned economy is still the absolute leader." Shaoning, deputy director of SASAC, recalled. The distribution of state-owned enterprises is too wide, and the forces are scattered, which cannot form economies of scale. At the end of last century, there were more than 200000 state-owned non-financial enterprises in China. A large number of small and medium-sized state-owned enterprises, low-level redundant construction, and in some areas that need state-owned enterprises to play a role, they lack competitiveness

how can we concentrate our efforts to let state-owned enterprises show their talents in those places where they can and should give full play to the advantages of state-owned enterprises

"there are advances and retreats, and there are actions and Omissions". The breakthrough in the concept has led to major changes in the layout structure of the state-owned economy and the system and mechanism of state-owned enterprises:

"grasp the large and let go of the small" -- in the field of small and medium-sized enterprises, the state-owned economy has implemented a large-scale active exit through reorganization, association, merger, leasing, contract management, joint-stock cooperation and other forms for more than 10 years

"bankruptcy exit" - for the difficult state-owned enterprises caused by economic transformation or poor management, the channel of bankruptcy exit is dredged, and the mechanism of survival of the fittest in the market economy plays a role. From 1998 to 2003, when the largest efforts were made, about 5000 difficult large and medium-sized state-owned enterprises went bankrupt, involving 9.81 million employees

"optimization and activation" - for large state-owned enterprises in normal operation, through the establishment of the state owned assets supervision and Administration Commission and the reform of systems and mechanisms such as improving the corporate governance structure, stimulate the internal vitality of enterprises, push them to the front line of the market, eliminate the fittest, and participate in competition equally

this is a reform that directly touches the interests. Xinxing Jihua, ranked among the global top 500 in 2012, is the world's largest supplier of ductile iron pipes. Few people know that when Xinxing Jihua was decoupled from the army and established as a central enterprise at the beginning of this century, its loss was as high as 2.4 billion yuan, and its first job was to bankrupt 14 subordinate enterprises. "So many enterprises went bankrupt at the same time, where did people go? Where did the money come from? A bankrupt enterprise in Hebei held a staff meeting, and I went to do staff ideological work. More than 1000 staff gathered to discuss, and I didn't see hope myself." Xu Jianhua, the Secretary of the board of directors, recalled the scene at that time and has been sweating so far

"layout adjustment is a fundamental reform. After the basic 'retreat' in place, the whole situation of state-owned enterprises has changed." Shaoning said that in the past, state-owned enterprises were a "face" layout, with a large number distributed in all industries, and then became a "block" layout

the most intuitive change is "two reductions and one increase":

the number of state-owned enterprises has decreased significantly. When the SASAC was established in 2003, there were 196 central enterprises. Since 2006, about 10 small-scale enterprises have merged into large advantageous enterprises every year. At present, the number of central enterprises has been reduced to 117

the proportion of state-owned enterprises in the national economy decreased. On the 3rd, the price of steel billets in the state-owned industry was stable on the whole, and the proportion of enterprise sales revenue in all industrial sales revenue fell from more than 50% at the end of the last century to 27% at present

At the same time, state-owned enterprises have entered the fastest and best period of development. From 2002 to 2012, the operating revenue of central enterprises increased from 3.36 trillion yuan to 22.5 trillion yuan, an increase of nearly seven times, with great strength and vitality

how can the "pillar" role of state-owned enterprises in the national economy be reflected under the new layout? In the past, people believed that this depended on whether the number of state-owned enterprises was dominant; Nowadays, the strength, control and influence of state-owned enterprises are more concerned

washing machines, bicycles, cooking spoons... Liming company, a subsidiary of AVIC, had difficulties in operation at the beginning of the century. In order to survive, it turned to manufacturing a large number of civilian products. "The industrial foundation laid by the state during the first five year plan period is not for us to produce fry spoons now!" Lin Zuoming, general manager of AVIC and chairman of Liming company at that time, made a decisive decision and took the initiative to give up the civil products projects that still made money, and concentrated his advantages to attack the gas turbine, the Pearl on the crown of the equipment manufacturing industry. Nowadays, the heavy-duty gas turbine with completely independent intellectual property rights has become the fist product of liming, which makes China's power plants in the field of national defense and heavy industry no longer rely entirely on imports

"there are advances and retreats, and retreats are for better progress." Li Rongrong, the first director of the state owned assets supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council, said many times. State owned capital is gradually concentrated in important industries and key fields related to national security, domestic granulator manufacturers and the lifeline of the national economy. At present, more than 80% of the assets of central enterprises are concentrated in national defense, energy, communications, metallurgy, machinery and other industries. They undertake nearly all the production of crude oil, natural gas and ethylene in China, provide all basic telecommunications services, generate more than 50% of the country's electricity, and produce more than 60% of the country's high value-added steel, 70% of hydropower equipment, and 75% of thermal power equipment. 117 central enterprises have made clear their main businesses and gradually withdrew from non main businesses. At present, there are basically no central enterprises involved in textile, light industry and other fields, and real estate, food and other industries account for less than 4%

the proportion of state-owned economy is decreasing, but the influence and control of new state-owned enterprises after a series of institutional and mechanism reforms are greatly enhanced

"influence and control are first reflected in the overall quality improvement of state-owned enterprises, especially central enterprises," fetscher said. " Penghuagang, director of the Research Bureau of SASAC, said

at the beginning of the establishment of SASAC, it was proposed that central enterprises should not only take the lead in China, but also comprehensively "benchmark" with world-class enterprises. Such a goal was once questioned, thinking that the gap was too large and shouting slogans. Today, 117 central enterprises, most of which have become the top three in the industry, and many of them have entered the top ten in the global industry, gradually mastering the voice and rule making power in the international market. In terms of general performance indicators such as industrial value-added rate and labor productivity, about 1/3 of China's industry-leading state-owned enterprises catch up with or exceed the global top 500. A number of competitive central enterprises, such as China national building materials and China International Airlines, have successively become the world's top enterprises in the industry in the past two years

influence and control are also reflected in the leadership of state-owned enterprises in new technologies and industries. The adjustment and optimization of the layout of the state-owned economy has provided conditions for the concentration of scientific and technological innovation resources to key enterprises. Today, central enterprises have become the core force of "created in China". In the field of high-speed rail, CSR and CNR completed the 40 year journey of developed countries in five years, setting a new record of 486.1 kilometers per hour; In the aerospace field, Chinese enterprises with state-owned enterprises as the main body paved a long journey of 380000 kilometers to the moon; In the field of energy, Shenhua Group has overcome a series of strategic reserve technologies such as direct coal liquefaction to prepare for a rainy day for national energy security... Central enterprises have participated in 15 of the 16 major national science and technology projects identified in the outline of the national medium and long term science and technology development plan; Over the years, the national special prize for scientific and technological progress and the vast majority of the national first prize for technological invention have been won by central enterprises

influence and control are also reflected in the radiation and drive of state-owned capital. Efforts have been made to diversify the property rights of state-owned enterprises. More than 90% of state-owned enterprises have implemented joint-stock restructuring, more than 60% of the operating revenue and more than 80% of the net profit of central enterprises are concentrated in listed companies, and more than 40 central enterprises have achieved the overall listing of their main businesses. Through the way of state-owned holding and equity participation, state-owned enterprises have widely absorbed non-state-owned social capital, expanded the radiation scope of the state-owned economy, and played a role of four or two

show new responsibilities, and state-owned enterprises have become the mainstay of economy and society.

new layout structure and new mission

in the past, state-owned enterprises were often associated with "waiting to rely". Nowadays, the new state-owned enterprises, which have undergone deep-seated reform and achieved transformation, have become increasingly prominent as the mainstay of economic and social development

state owned enterprises have become an important guarantee for improving people's Livelihood --

"when SASAC was established, how to keep state-owned assets from loss and depreciation is still a big problem." Peng Huagang said. Now, from 2003 to 2011, the total assets of central enterprises increased from 7.13 trillion yuan to 28 trillion yuan, and the owner's equity increased from 3.19 trillion yuan to 11 trillion yuan. "The demand of state-owned assets for plastic bags remains high; on the other hand, maintaining and increasing the value of plastic bags is seen as real gold and silver, and it is also a high-quality asset left to the whole people."

the more direct contribution is to the public finance. Although the proportion of state-owned enterprises in the national economy has declined, they have always been an important source of national taxes. From 2003 to 2011, state-owned enterprises nationwide paid a total of 17.1 trillion yuan in taxes, accounting for 38.4% of national taxes in 2011. All types of enterprises must pay taxes, but in terms of classification, the tax contribution rate of state-owned enterprises is much higher than that of other ownership enterprises. In 2011, among industrial enterprises above Designated Size, the main business tax and surcharges and value-added tax per 100 yuan of main business income were 8 yuan for state-owned and state-controlled enterprises, 3.2 yuan for private enterprises and 2.3 yuan for foreign-funded enterprises. In the fully competitive steel industry, the tax burden of state-owned and state holding enterprises per ton of steel is 203 yuan

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